The main advantage is knowledge. If you know that the breast and/or ovarian cancer in your family is due to a genetic mutation, and you test negative, you no longer have to worry about being high risk. If you test positive, you can take steps to prevent cancer, such as having surgery or taking medications, or try to catch it early through more frequent screenings starting at a younger age.
There are some disadvantages. You may feel excessively anxious after receiving a positive result. You may not want to have surgery, and you may worry that screening and medications offer no guarantees against getting cancer. The genetic testing process also can cause family strife if members disagree on whether or not it is a good idea. Finally, genetic testing results are not always straightforward, sometimes coming back “indeterminate” or uncertain. This is one reason why it is critical to have your testing arranged by someone who has expertise in cancer genetics.
Your doctor and genetic counselor can help you weigh these and other issues carefully before moving ahead. You also can change your mind at any point in the process. Once results are available, for example, you can choose to delay receiving them until you are ready.
Reviewed by Jill Stopfer, MS